The "Saga of Ingvar the Far-Traveller" (YS) is based on a reliable fact, justified by about 25 runic inscriptions which date to the first half of the eleventh century, that. The Viking Age Expansion adds several new scenarios, game components, mechanics, and victory conditions to Vikings, including Christian Churches. Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren.
The Viking Age and the Crusades Era in Yngvars saga víðförlaThe "Saga of Ingvar the Far-Traveller" (YS) is based on a reliable fact, justified by about 25 runic inscriptions which date to the first half of the eleventh century, that. The Viking Age Expansion adds several new scenarios, game components, mechanics, and victory conditions to Vikings, including Christian Churches. Why Gotland? Jonathan Shepard PART I: COGS AND DRIVERS2. Reading between the lines: Tracking slaves and slavery in the early middle ages David.
Viking Age Art of the Viking Age VideoHistory Summarized: The Viking Age
The appearance of Vikings within popular media and television has seen a resurgence in recent decades, especially with the History Channel's series Vikings , directed by Michael Hirst.
However, the conclusions remain contentious. Vikings have served as an inspiration for numerous video games , such as The Lost Vikings , Age of Mythology , and For Honor Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, movies, television series, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.
Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.
Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.
The formal, close-quarters style of Viking combat either in shield walls or aboard "ship islands" would have made horned helmets cumbersome and hazardous to the warrior's own side.
Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.
The general misconception that Viking warriors wore horned helmets was partly promulgated by the 19th-century enthusiasts of Götiska Förbundet , founded in in Stockholm.
The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.
This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.
The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.
Horned helmets from the Bronze Age were shown in petroglyphs and appeared in archaeological finds see Bohuslän and Vikso helmets. They were probably used for ceremonial purposes.
Cartoons like Hägar the Horrible and Vicky the Viking , and sports kits such as those of the Minnesota Vikings and Canberra Raiders have perpetuated the myth of the horned helmet.
Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.
The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden. The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway.
This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century. The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.
There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century  as referring to the skulls of the slain.
Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.
Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Norse explorers, raiders, merchants, and pirates. Contemporary countries.
Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden. Other topics. Main article: Viking Age. Main article: Viking expansion.
Main article: Runestone. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark.
Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. See also: Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala.
Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli. Main article: Viking ships.
Prow of the Oseberg ship , at Oslo Museum. A reconstructed longship. Main article: Viking Age arms and armour. Viking swords. This section appears to contain trivial, minor, or unrelated references to popular culture.
Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, providing citations to reliable, secondary sources , rather than simply listing appearances.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Play media. Main article: Horned helmet. Constructs such as ibid.
Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide , or an abbreviated title.
October Learn how and when to remove this template message. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press. The term 'Viking' This is the narrow, and technically the only correct use of the term 'Viking,' but in such expressions as 'Viking civilisation,' 'the Viking age,' 'the Viking movement,' 'Viking influence,' the word has come to have a wider significance and is used as a concise and convenient term for describing the whole of the civilisation, activity and influence of the Scandinavian peoples, at a particular period in their history, and to apply the term 'Viking' in its narrower sense to these movements would be as misleading as to write an account of the age of Elizabeth and label it 'The Buccaneers.
Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. Scarecrow Press. Viking is not merely another way of referring to a medieval Scandinavian. Technically, the word has a more specific meaning, and it was used only infrequently by contemporaries of the Vikings to refer to those Scandinavians, usually men, who attacked their contemporaries Simpson, Jacqueline The Viking World.
Strictly speaking, therefore, the term Viking should only be applied to men actually engaged in these violent pursuits, and not to every contemporary Scandinavian Davies, Norman The Isles: A History.
Oxford University Press. The Viking appellation Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "Viking" is applied today to Scandinavians who left their homes intent on raiding or conquest, and their descendants, during a period extending roughly from a.
Mawer, Allen In Bury, J. The Cambridge Medieval History. The term Viking The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology 2 ed.
Retrieved 3 January Scandinavian words used to describe the seafaring raiders from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark who ravaged the coasts of Europe from about ad onwards.
Crowcroft, Robert; Cannon, John , eds. The Oxford Companion to British History 2 ed. Viking is an Old Norse term, of disputed derivation, which only came into common usage in the 19th cent.
Concise Oxford English Dictionary. OUP Oxford. Vikings: Any of the Scandinavian seafaring pirates and traders who raided and settled in many parts of NW Europe in the 8th—11th centuries Random House Unabridged Dictionary Random House.
Collins Online Dictionary. The Vikings were people who sailed from Scandinavia and attacked villages in most parts of north-western Europe from the 8th to the 11th centuries Collins English Dictionary.
Webster's New World Dictionary, 4th Edition Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cambridge Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.
These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Archived from the original on 30 September Lepel Regional Executive Committee.
Visby Sweden , n. A companion to the Early Middle Ages. Who were the first vikings? Oslo: Universitetets oldsaksamling, UiO.
Woodbridge: Boydell Press. Skeat , published in , defined Viking : better Wiking, Icel. Viking-r, O. Skeat; Clarendon press; p.
An etymological contribution" PDF. Arkiv för Nordisk Filologi. Archived from the original PDF on 14 July Retrieved 20 April Skeat: Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p.
Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 17 March A reply to Harald Bjorvand". Centre of Medieval Studies University of Bergen.
Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 13 January Boas 13 May Linguistics Research Center. The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 22 December Old Frisian Etymological Dictionary.
Leiden: Brill. Archaeology in Europe. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 8 June — via academia.
Saga-book of the Viking Society. University College London. Retrieved 15 April Ancient History Encyclopedia. Sweden History Tours. The Varangians of Byzantium.
Retrieved 2 February Retrieved 25 July Arabic Sources On The Vikings. Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S Kalmback Publishing.
Archived from the original on 30 April Retrieved 6 April National Geographic. Archived from the original on 14 May Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Video about Vikings.
Viking seeresses A seeress from Fyrkat? In England, the Viking Age began on 8 June  when Vikings destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne, a centre of learning that was famous across the continent.
Monks were killed in the abbey, thrown into the sea to drown, or carried away as slaves along with the church treasures. Three Viking ships had beached in Portland Bay four years earlier although due to a scribal error the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle dates this event to rather than , but that incursion may have been a trading expedition that went wrong rather than a piratical raid.
Lindisfarne was different. The Viking devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island was reported by the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York , who wrote: "Never before in Britain has such a terror appeared".
Vikings were portrayed as uniformly violent and bloodthirsty. The chronicles of medieval England portrayed them as rapacious "wolves among sheep".
The first challenges to the many anti-Viking images in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Pioneering scholarly works on the Viking Age reached a small readership in Britain.
Archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past. Linguistic enthusiasts traced the Viking-Age origins of rural idioms and proverbs. In Scandinavia, the 17th century Danish scholars Thomas Bartholin and Ole Worm and Swedish scholar Olaus Rudbeck were the first to use runic inscriptions and Icelandic Sagas as primary historical sources.
During the Enlightenment and Nordic Renaissance, historians such as the Danish-Norwegian Ludvig Holberg and Swedish Olof von Dalin developed a more "rational" and "pragmatic" approach to historical scholarship.
By the later half of the 18th century, while the Icelandic Sagas were still used as important historical sources, the Viking Age had again come to be regarded as a barbaric and uncivilised period in the history of the Nordic countries.
Not until the s, during Victoria's reign in Britain , did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to extensively reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.
Today, few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, relying instead on findings from archaeology, numismatics, and other scientific disciplines.
The Vikings who invaded western and eastern Europe were chiefly pagans from Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Their North Germanic language , Old Norse , became the mother-tongue of present-day Scandinavian languages.
By , a strong central authority appears to have been established in Jutland, and the Danes were beginning to look beyond their own territory for land, trade and plunder.
In Norway, mountainous terrain and fjords formed strong natural boundaries. Communities there remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in Denmark which is lowland.
By , some 30 small kingdoms existed in Norway. The sea was the easiest way of communication between the Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world.
It was in the 8th century that Scandinavians began to build ships of war and send them on raiding expeditions to initiate the Viking Age.
The North Sea rovers were traders, colonisers and explorers as well as plunderers. Norse society was based on agriculture and trade with other peoples and placed great emphasis on the concept of honour, both in combat and in the criminal justice system.
It was, for example, unfair and wrong to attack an enemy already in a fight with another. It is unknown what triggered the Norse expansion and conquests.
This era coincided with the Medieval Warm Period — and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age about — With the means of travel longships and open water , their desire for goods led Scandinavian traders to explore and develop extensive trading partnerships in new territories.
It has been suggested that the Scandinavians suffered from unequal trade practices imposed by Christian advocates and that this eventually led to the breakdown in trade relations and raiding.
British merchants who declared openly that they were Christian and would not trade with heathens and infidels Muslims and the Norse would get preferred status for availability and pricing of goods through a Christian network of traders.
A two-tiered system of pricing existed with both declared and undeclared merchants trading secretly with banned parties. Viking raiding expeditions were separate from and coexisted with regular trading expeditions.
A people with the tradition of raiding their neighbours when their honour had been impugned might easily fall to raiding foreign peoples who impugned their honour.
Historians also suggest that the Scandinavian population was too large for the peninsula and there was not enough good farmland for everyone. This led to a hunt for more land.
Particularly for the settlement and conquest period that followed the early raids, internal strife in Scandinavia resulted in the progressive centralisation of power into fewer hands.
Formerly empowered local lords who did not want to be oppressed by greedy kings emigrated overseas. There, they were mistaken for merchants by a royal official.
They murdered him when he tried to get them to accompany him to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods.
It was recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne note that the generally accepted date is actually 8 June, not January  :.
This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament.
These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island Lindisfarne , by rapine and slaughter.
In , according to the Annals of Ulster , there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona, which was followed in by raids upon the northern coast of Ireland.
Godwinson was subsequently defeated within a month by another Viking descendant, William , Duke of Normandy Normandy had been conquered by Vikings Normans in Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the 13th and the 15th centuries; the Western Isles and the Isle of Man remained under Scandinavian authority until Orkney and Shetland belonged to the king of Norway as late as In Scandinavia the Viking age is considered to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the establishment of Christianity as the dominant religion.
The date is usually put somewhere in the early 11th century in all three Scandinavian countries. The end of the Viking-era in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in Although Olafr Haraldsson's later known as Olav the Holy army lost the battle, Christianity spread, partly on the strength of rumours of miraculous signs after his death.
Norwegians would no longer be called Vikings. In Sweden, the reign of king Olov Skötkonung appr is considered to be the transition from the Viking age to the Middle Ages, because he was the first Christian king of the Swedes and he is associated with a growing influence of the church in what is today southwestern and central Sweden.
In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.
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The Viking Age brought change not only to the regions of Europe plundered and conquered by the Nordic warriors, but to Scandinavia itself.
Beginning around A. While the exact reasons for Vikings venturing out from their homeland are uncertain; some have suggested it was Advances in Shipbuilding and Navigation Perhaps the most striking of Viking achievements was their state-of-the-art shipbuilding technology, which allowed them to travel greater distances than anyone before them.
Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow Not even St. Patrick himself could protect Ireland from the Vikings.
When the Nordic raiders launched their first attack on Ireland in A. No heavenly intercession arrived, however, to save their Leif Erikson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland.
April Main article: Viking raids in the Rhineland. Main article: L'Anse aux Meadows. Further information: Longship and Viking Age arms and armour.
See also: Norse paganism and Norse mythology. This section is empty. Main article: History of Scandinavia. The Vikings. Cambridge University Press.
The term ' Viking ' is derived from the Old Norse vik, a bay, and means 6 one who haunts a bay, creek or fjord 1 '. In the 9th and 10th centuries it came to be used more especially of those warriors who left their homes in Scandinavia and made raids on the chief European countries.
Scandinavians and the English in the Viking Age. University of Cambridge. The Viking period is, therefore, best defined as the period when Scandinavians played a large role in the British Isles and western Europe as raiders and conquerors.
It is also the period in which Scandinavians settled in many of the areas they conquered, and in the Atlantic islands Women in the Viking Age.
International contact is the key to the Viking Age. In Scandinavian history this period is distinct because large numbers of Scandinavian people left their homelands and voyaged abroad The period is thus defined by the impact the Scandinavians had on the world around them.
The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. The Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings. Penguin Books.
The term "Viking" has come to be applied to all Scandinavians of the period, but in the Viking Age itself the term vikingr applied only to someone who went i viking, that is plundering.
In this sense, most Viking-age Scandinavians were not Vikings at all, but peaceful farmers and craftsmen who stayed quietly at home all their lives.
The term 'Viking' has come in modern times to be applied to all early medieval Scandinavians and it is directly as a result of this that the controversy has arisen.
As used originally in the Viking Age itself, the word was applied only to someone who went i viking, that is someone whose occupation was piracy.
The earliest use of the word predates the Viking Age by some years and it was not even used exclusively to describe Scandinavian pirates.
Most Viking Age Scandinavians were not Vikings at all in this original sense of the word but were simply peaceful farmers, craftsmen and merchants.
The Vikings in the Isle of Man. Aarhus University Press. One of the problems facing any serious writer dealing with the Viking Age concerns the usage of the term 'Viking' itself, which I have used — if sparingly — in much of this book.
The word 'Viking' did not come into general use in the English language until the middle of the nineteenth Century — at about the same time that it was introduced into serious academic literature in Scandinavia — and has since then changed its meaning and been much abused.
It must, however, be accepted that the term is today used throughout the world as a descriptor of the peoples of Scandinavia in the period from the late eighth Century until the mid-eleventh Century.
To the general public, however, it has apparently two meanings; both are respectable and hallowed in the English language by two centuries of usage.
The first is in the sense of 'raider' or 'pirate', the second in the sense of the activities of the Scandinavians outside their own country in that period.
It is the latter meaning that has given rise to the useful term 'the Viking Age'. Disregarding the ultimate philology of the word and the history of its use over the centuries, which has been much discussed, it is now in such everyday use by both specialists and non-specialists — however improperly — to describe the Scandinavians of the Viking Age, that it almost impossible to avoid its use in this generic sense.
Although it is often appropriate and necessary to use such terms as 'Scandinavian' or 'Norse', as I have done in this book, it is often simpler and less confusing to label something as 'Viking' rather than deal in scholastic circumlocution to placate purists, however justified they may be in their arguments.
Oxford University Press. Retrieved 3 January English Heritage. Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 3 March The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
Psychology Press. It is asserted that the closest documented phrase is a sentence from an antiphon for churches dedicated to St. Vaast or St.
Medard: Summa pia gratia nostra conservando corpora et cutodita, de gente fera Normannica nos libera, quae nostra vastat, Deus, regna , "Our supreme and holy Grace, protecting us and ours, deliver us, God, from the savage race of Northmen which lays waste our realms.
New York: E. Simeon of Durham recorded the raid in these terms: And they came to the church of Lindisfarne, laid everything waste with grievous plundering, trampled the holy places with polluted feet, dug up the altars, and seized all the treasures of the holy church.
Northern Shores: a history of the Baltic Sea and its peoples. London: John Murray. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Retrieved 17 October Peter Sawyer, for example, in , said that the first raids on Britain, by the Norwegians, were a byproduct of the colonisation of the Orkneys and the Shetlands, and that the Norwegians were more interested in settlement than in plunder.
More recently, however, a couple of problems have emerged with this explanation. For a start, Sawyer in reneged somewhat by saying that no good evidence exists for any population pressure in the eighth century.
Patrick Wormald added that what has been taken for overpopulation was just population concentration due to economic expansion and the mining of iron ore.
In a further point, Wormald states that no clear evidence has been found for any Viking settlement until the mid-9th century, some 50—60 years after the raids began.
Thus, colonisation seems to have been a secondary feature of Viking activity; the success of the raids opened the way for settlement, but were not motivated by it, at least not initially.
See also P. Farrell, ed. Sawyer, The Age of the Vikings 2nd Ed. Archaeological evidence shows that new farms were cleared in sparsely populated forest areas at the time of the foreign expansion—so the pressure of population growth is surely a contributing factor.
Hallsal, Guy ed. Selective female infanticide as partial explanation for dearth of women in Viking Age Scandinavia. Woodbridge: Boydell press.
What Caused the Viking Age? Antiquity The Vikings: A History. New York: Viking, Mechanicsburg, Leiden: Brill, A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.
Britannia 37 : Web. Archived from the original on 15 July Medieval and Classical Literature Library. Archived from the original on 13 April Retrieved 7 JuneVeröffentlichungsvertrag Version Der Künstler definiert dabei zunächst mit Graphitstift sein Bildthema vor. Lediglich Tyr, der Gott des Krieges, ist hierzu bereit. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. Retrieved 3 August The thralls were Treasures Of The Mystic Sea 2 brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.